Early Modern Surat

The Rise of Surat

The Castle

Cloth Map of Surat, Early 18th Century, Preserved in the Japiur City Palace Museum of Jaipur
French Illustration of Surat from 1683
A view of the fort from about 1780, with modern hand coloring
Contemporary view of Surat Fort from the River



Map of Surat in 1720

The Fall of Surat

The master plan for renovating Surat Castle, Ludwig Felix De Gloss


  1. Dale, Stephen. (1994). Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600–1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Das Gupta, A. (1979). Indian Merchants and the Decline of Surat, c. 1700–1750. Wiesbaden: Steiner.
  3. Haynes, Douglas. (1991). Rhetoric and Ritual in Colonial India: The Shaping of a Public Culture in Surat City, 1852–1928. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  4. Nadri, Ghulam. (2015). Revisiting the ‘Decline of Surat’: Maritime Trade and the Port Complex of Gujarat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries.
  5. Seshan, Radhika. (2019). Merchants and Marts: Gujarat’s Networks of Trade in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.
  6. Subrahmanyam, S. (2018). The Hidden Face of Surat: Reflections on a Cosmopolitan Indian Ocean Centre, 1540–1750, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 61(1–2), 205–255.




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